Comparative Evaluation of Adjunctive Oral Irrigation in Diabetes
The purpose of this study was to assess the response of diabetics to scaling and root planing treatment and subgingival oral irrigation as adjunctive therapy.
A total of 52 type 1 and 2 diabetics (mean age 51.3+/-14) with adult periodontitis were randomized to two groups. Treatment included ultrasonic scaling and scaling and root planing in both groups (control and test) plus subgingival water irrigation 2x daily for the test group. Assessments were made prior to and at 6 and 12 weeks after treatment. Parameters measured were modified gingival index (MGI), probing pocket depth (PPD), plaque index (PI), clinical attachment level (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Systemic measurement of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation, cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-10, and PGE2), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C).
After treatment, analysis of data showed that both groups had clinical and systemic improvement. The test group had a statistically significant reduction for MGI, PI, and BOP compared to controls (p<0.03) at 12 weeks and for ROS generation at 12 weeks (p<0.012). Unlike controls, systemic analysis of cytokines showed a statistically significant reduction from baseline for IL-1beta at 6 weeks and PGE2 at 6 and 12 weeks (p<0.05) within test group.
These results suggest that scaling and root planing and adjunctive therapy may be of value in establishing a healthy periodontium in diabetics.